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Title: Design and calibration of curved and see-through integral imaging 3D display
Authors: Jackin, Boaz Jessie
Oi, Ryutaro
Wakunami, Koki
Yamamoto, Kenji
Ichihashi, Yasuyuki
BEKAERT, Philippe 
LAFRUIT, Gauthier 
Issue Date: 2023
Source: VIRTUAL REALITY, 27 (2) , p. 761-775
Abstract: Heads-up displays that are `see-through' and `curved' and capable of displaying 3D contents are considered crucial for augmented reality-based navigation in automobiles. Here we report the development, calibration and experimental evaluation of a 3D display system that satisfies the above requirements. Integral imaging is used as the 3D display technique, which is realized using a flexible `concave-micro-mirror array' screen (equivalent of a `micro-lens array', but working in reflection mode). The screen itself is fabricated as a holographic optical element. The holographic nature of the screen enables a `see-through' effect. The 3D content to be displayed is served by a 2D projector as integral images. A novel calibration method is developed which employs diffusive markers, that are invisible to the naked eye, being placed at one corner of each elemental micro-mirror. The calibration enables proper treatment of the effects and artifacts caused by screen `curvature', but the presence of markers itself does not degrade the display characteristics. A curved micro-mirror array screen of size 10 cm x 10 cm consisting of 100 x 200 elemental concave mirrors is fabricated as a flexible holographic optical element with diffusive markers of size 300 mu m x 300 mu m. The screen, when illuminated with a projector (that serves integral images), was able to reconstruct a 3D scene of size 10 cm x 10 cm with a depth of 5 cm. The novel calibration method employing diffusive markers demonstrates significant improvement in calibration accuracy. The curved and see-through nature of the display screen makes it a good choice for windshield displays. The reported system requires further improvements in enlarging the screen size and increasing depth of the 3D scene in order to meet real-world requirements, which can be achieved by scaling-up the system.
Notes: Jackin, BJ (corresponding author), Kyoto Inst Technol, Ctr Design Centr Engn, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068585, Japan.;
Keywords: Holographic micro-mirror array;Integral imaging;Curved light field display;Calibration
Document URI:
ISSN: 1359-4338
e-ISSN: 1434-9957
DOI: 10.1007/s10055-022-00686-8
ISI #: 000850051500001
Rights: The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2022
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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