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Title: Interpretation and management of INR results: a case history based survey in 13 countries
Other Titles: Interpretation and management of INR results
Authors: Kristoffersen, Ann-Helen
Thue, Geir
Claes, Neree 
Horvath, Andrea Rita
Leonetti, Rina
Kallion, Kaja
Kitchen, Dianne
Kitchen, Steve
Kutt, Marge
Meijer, Piet
Muller, Mathias
Nilsson, Elisabeth
Perich, Carmen
Plum, Inger
Rogic, Dunja
Tirimacco, Rosy
van der Meer, Felix J.M.
Watine, Joseph
Sandberg, Sverre
Ajzner, Eva
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: Introduction: Standardisation of treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is still an issue after 60 years of use. The study aimed to explore aspects of VKA monitoring in primary and secondary care. Methods: Two case histories were distributed to physicians in 13 countries. Case history A focused on a patient with atrial fibrillation on stable anticoagulation (latest INR 2.3). Physicians were asked about frequency of INR measurement, when to change the VKA dose, and the patient’s annual risk of ischemic stroke and bleeding. Case history B focused on a patient with an unexpected INR of 4.8, asking for the patient’s 48-hour bleeding risk, the immediate dose reduction and time until a repeat INR. Results: Altogether, 3016 physicians responded (response rate 8 – 38%), of which 82% were from primary care and 18% from secondary care. Answers varied substantially within and between countries regardless of level of care and VKA used. Median number of weeks between INR measurements was 4 – 6 weeks. Median threshold INR for increasing or decreasing the VKA dose was 1.9 and 3.1, respectively. Risk of ischemic stroke and bleeding were overestimated 2 – 3 times. In case history B, the median dose reduction the two first days was 75% for GPs and 55% for specialists, irrespective of estimates of bleeding risk; with one week to a repeat INR. Conclusion: Variation in VKA monitoring is substantial implying clinical consequences. Guidelines seem either unknown or may be considered impracticable. Further efforts towards standardisation of VKA management are needed.
Keywords: anticoagulation; case histories; dosing algorithms; INR; standardization; Vitamin K antagonists
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ISSN: 0049-3848
e-ISSN: 1879-2472
DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2012.02.014
ISI #: 000308078800036
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 2013
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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