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Title: Smoking in Relation to Age in Aesthetic Facial Surgery
Authors: Deliaert, An E. K.
van den Elzen, M. E. P.
van den Kerckhove, E.
FIEUWS, Steffen 
van der Hulst, R. R. W. J.
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: SPRINGER
Source: AESTHETIC PLASTIC SURGERY, 36 (4), p. 853-856
Abstract: Background Smoking is a major cause of premature facial aging. Skin aging in general, often accompanied by wrinkling and furrowing, plays a significant role in the decision to undergo aesthetic surgery. Smoking may therefore be related to the demand for cosmetic surgery. This study aimed to compare smoking habits with respect to a standard cosmetic procedure (blepharoplasty) in the general population and to evaluate whether the age at surgery differs between smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 517 patients with valid reports describing dermatochalasis of the upper eyelid who subsequently underwent an upper-eyelid correction in 2004. Smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and medical history were evaluated. The patients were classified as smokers, ex-smokers with at least 1 year of smoking cessation, and never-smokers. Results Of the 353 questionnaires (68.3 %) returned, 345 were eligible for statistical analysis. The smoking habits did not differ between the blepharoplasty group and the general population. However, the smokers underwent surgery an average of 3.7 years earlier than the ex-smokers (p = 0.0007) and 3.5 years earlier than the never-smokers (p = 0.006). No significant difference was observed between the ex-smokers and the never-smokers. Conclusions This is the first study to describe an association between smoking habits and an earlier need for upper-eyelid correction among ex- and never-smokers. The mechanism of skin restoration could result in a regenerative mechanism among ex-smokers, but further research is needed to support this hypothesis. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at
Notes: [Deliaert, An E. K.; van den Kerckhove, E.; van der Hulst, R. R. W. J.] Maastricht Univ Med Ctr, Dept Plast Surg, NL-6202 AZ Maastricht, Netherlands. [van den Elzen, M. E. P.] Maxima Med Ctr, Dept Plast Surg, Eindhoven, Netherlands. [van den Kerckhove, E.] Univ Hosp, Dept Rehabil Sci & Kinesiol, Louvain, Belgium. [van den Kerckhove, E.] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Phys Med, Louvain, Belgium. [van den Kerckhove, E.] Katholieke Univ Leuven, Rehabil & Burns Ctr, Louvain, Belgium. [Fieuws, S.] Univ Hasselt, Diepenbeek, Belgium. [van der Hulst, R. R. W. J.] Viecuri Med Ctr, Dept Plast Surg, Venlo, Netherlands. [van der Hulst, R. R. W. J.] Orbis Med Ctr, Dept Plast Surg, Sittard, Netherlands.
Keywords: Aesthetic surgery; Aging; Dermatochalasis; Smoking; Skin aging; Superior blepharoplasty;Surgery; aesthetic surgery; aaging; dermatochalasis;smoking; skin aging; superior blepharoplasty
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ISSN: 0364-216X
e-ISSN: 1432-5241
DOI: 10.1007/s00266-012-9913-2
ISI #: 000306788600014
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 2013
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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