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Title: Improving health through policies that promote active travel: A review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment
Authors: de Nazelle, Audrey
Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
Anto, Josep M.
Brauer, Michael
Briggs, David
Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte
Cavill, Nick
Cooper, Ashley R.
Desqueyroux, Helene
Fruin, Scott
Hoek, Gerard
Janssen, Nicole
Jerrett, Michael
Joffe, Michael
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
van Kempen, Elise
Kingham, Simon
Kubesch, Nadine
Leyden, Kevin M.
Marshall, Julian D.
Matamala, Jaume
Mellios, Giorgos
Mendez, Michelle
Nassif, Hala
Ogilvie, David
Peiro, Rosana
Perez, Katherine
Rabl, Ari
Ragettli, Martina
Rodriguez, Daniel
Rojas, David
Ruiz, Pablo
Sallis, James F.
Terwoert, Jeroen
Toussaint, Jean-Francois
Tuomisto, Jouni
Zuurbier, Moniek
Lebret, Erik
Issue Date: 2011
Source: ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, 37 (4), p. 766-777
Abstract: Background: Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however, about the interconnections among effects of policies considered, including potential unintended consequences. Objectives and methods: We review available literature regarding health impacts from policies that encourage active travel in the context of developing health impact assessment (HIA) models to help decision-makers propose better solutions for healthy environments. We identify important components of HIA models of modal shifts in active travel in response to transport policies and interventions. Results and discussion: Policies that increase active travel are likely to generate large individual health benefits through increases in physical activity for active travelers. Smaller, but population-wide benefits could accrue through reductions in air and noise pollution. Depending on conditions of policy implementations, risk tradeoffs are possible for some individuals who shift to active travel and consequently increase inhalation of air pollutants and exposure to traffic injuries. Well-designed policies may enhance health benefits through indirect outcomes such as improved social capital and diet, but these synergies are not sufficiently well understood to allow quantification at this time. Conclusion: Evaluating impacts of active travel policies is highly complex; however, many associations can be quantified. Identifying health-maximizing policies and conditions requires integrated HIAs. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Notes: [de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Anto, Josep M.; Kubesch, Nadine; Matamala, Jaume; Mendez, Michelle; Ogilvie, David] CREAL Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Barcelona 08003, Spain. [de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Anto, Josep M.; Kubesch, Nadine; Matamala, Jaume; Mendez, Michelle] IMIM Hosp del Mar, Municipal Inst Med Res, Barcelona, Spain. [Brauer, Michael] Univ British Columbia, Sch Environm Hlth, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. [Briggs, David; Joffe, Michael] Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London SW7 2AZ, England. [Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Ragettli, Martina] Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Zurich, Switzerland. [Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Ragettli, Martina] Univ Basel, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland. [Cooper, Ashley R.] Univ Bristol, Sch Policy Studies, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England. [Desqueyroux, Helene] Agcy Environm & Energy Management ADEME, Paris, France. [Fruin, Scott] Univ So Calif, Los Angeles, CA USA. [Hoek, Gerard; Zuurbier, Moniek; Lebret, Erik] Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands. [Panis, Luc Int] Flemish Inst Technol Res VITO, Mol, Belgium. [Janssen, Nicole; van Kempen, Elise; Lebret, Erik] Ctr Environm Hlth, Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands. [Jerrett, Michael] Univ Calif Berkeley, Sch Publ Hlth, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. [Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic] Danish Canc Soc, Inst Canc Epidemiol, Copenhagen, Denmark. [Kingham, Simon] Univ Canterbury, Dept Geog, Christchurch 1, New Zealand. [Leyden, Kevin M.] W Virginia Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA. [Leyden, Kevin M.] Natl Univ Ireland, JE Cairnes Sch Business & Econ, Galway, Ireland. [Marshall, Julian D.] Univ Minnesota, Dept Civil Engn, Minneapolis, MN USA. [Mellios, Giorgos] Emisia SA, Thessaloniki, Greece. [Nassif, Hala; Toussaint, Jean-Francois] Inst Rech bioMede & Epidemiol Sport Paris, IRMES, Paris, France. [Ogilvie, David] Ctr Diet & Activ Res CEDAR, Cambridge, England. [Ogilvie, David] RC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England. [Peiro, Rosana] Ctr Super Invest Salud Publ CSISP, Valencia, Spain. [Perez, Katherine] CIBERESP, Agencia Salut Publ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. [Rabl, Ari] Ecole Mines Paris, CEP, Paris, France. [Rodriguez, Daniel] Univ N Carolina, Dept City & Reg Planning, Chapel Hill, NC USA. [Ruiz, Pablo] Univ Chile, Fac Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Santiago 7, Chile. [Sallis, James F.] San Diego State Univ, San Diego, CA 92182 USA. [Terwoert, Jeroen] TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands. [Tuomisto, Jouni] Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Kuopio, Finland.
Keywords: Environmental Sciences; walking; cycling; built environment; risk assessment; physical activity; air pollution;Walking; Cycling; Built environment; Risk assessment; Physical activity; Air pollution
Document URI:
ISSN: 0160-4120
e-ISSN: 1873-6750
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.02.003
ISI #: 000290085000012
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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