Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/14708
Title: Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users’ exposure to black carbon
Authors: DONS, Evi 
Temmerman, Philip
Van Poppel, Martine
BELLEMANS, Tom 
WETS, Geert 
INT PANIS, Luc 
Issue Date: 2013
Source: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 447, p. 72-79
Abstract: Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m3) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m3), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m3). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds (< 30 km/h) and at speeds above 80 km/h, in accordance to vehicle emission functions. Driving on roads with low traffic intensities resulted in lower exposures than driving on roads with higher traffic intensities (from 5.6 μg/m3 for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m3 for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only.
Notes: Includes supplementary geospatial data. Reprint Address: Dons, E (reprint author) - Vlaamse Instelling Technol Onderzoek, Flemish Inst Technol Res, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. E-mail Addresses:evi.dons@vito.be
Keywords: Black carbon; Personal exposure; Mobile monitoring; Traffic; Aethalometer; GPS
Document URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/14708
ISSN: 0048-9697
e-ISSN: 1879-1026
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.12.076
ISI #: 000317538100009
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 2014
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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