Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Full metadata record
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorAMELOOT, Marcel-
dc.contributor.advisorLAMBRICHTS, Ivo-
dc.contributor.authorSANEN, Kathleen-
dc.description.abstractThe human body is amazing. It is continuously processing information from the environment, balancing energy levels, fighting infections, and so much more. From the smallest molecule to interacting systems, each part contributes to overall functioning and harmony. Even though the body possesses an impressive capacity to heal itself, there are limitations. In order to overcome these restrictions, experts from different disciplines have been operating hand in hand to rebuild tissues and organs. What was considered science fiction a few decades ago is becoming reality today. From artificial skin to blood vessels and cartilage, the field of tissue engineering is rapidly evolving from bench to bedside. In this dissertation, a novel cell-based tissue engineering approach to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration is discussed. The theoretical background of peripheral nerve injury and the choice for human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and collagen type I hydrogels as a basis for artificial nerve conduits is reviewed and justified in the general introduction. The following four chapters elaborate on specific aspects of the development and implementation of this engineered neural tissue, from the molecular to the tissue level with both standard and advanced label-free microscopy techniques. Finally, in the general discussion all the findings are combined and put in perspective to answer the proposed research questions.-
dc.subject.otherhuman dental pulp stem cells; Schwann cells; collagen; hydrogel; aligned; peripheral nerve; injury; regeneration; second harmonic generation; label-free-
dc.titleGlial differentiated human dental pulp stem cells in engineered neural tissue constructs: an in vitro and in vivo approach-
dc.typeTheses and Dissertations-
dc.relation.references1. Navarro, X., et al., A critical review of interfaces with the peripheral nervous system for the control of neuroprostheses and hybrid bionic systems. J Peripher Nerv Syst, 2005. 10(3): p. 229-58. 2. Pabari, A., et al., Modern surgical management of peripheral nerve gap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 2010. 63(12): p. 1941-8. 3. Jessen, K.R., R. Mirsky, and A.C. Lloyd, Schwann Cells: Development and Role in Nerve Repair. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 2015. 7(7). 4. Jessen, K.R. and R. Mirsky, The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nerves. Nat Rev Neurosci, 2005. 6(9): p. 671-82. 5. Jessen, K.R., Glial cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2004. 36(10): p. 1861-7. 6. Jessen, K.R. and R. Mirsky, Negative regulation of myelination: relevance for development, injury, and demyelinating disease. Glia, 2008. 56(14): p. 1552-65. 7. Sango, K. and J. Yamauchi, Schwann Cell Development and Pathology, ed. K. Sango and J. Yamauchi. Vol. 1. 2014: Springer Japan. 174. 8. Lietz, M., et al., Neuro tissue engineering of glial nerve guides and the impact of different cell types. Biomaterials, 2006. 27(8): p. 1425-36. 9. Arthur-Farraj, P.J., et al., c-Jun reprograms Schwann cells of injured nerves to generate a repair cell essential for regeneration. Neuron, 2012. 75(4): p. 633-47. 10. Lee, H.J., Y.K. Shin, and H.T. Park, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Family Proteins and c-jun Signaling in Injury-induced Schwann Cell Plasticity. Exp Neurobiol, 2014. 23(2): p. 130-7. 11. Lee, H.K., et al., Proteasome inhibition suppresses Schwann cell dedifferentiation in vitro and in vivo. Glia, 2009. 57(16): p. 1825-34. 12. Holtzman, E. and A.B. Novikoff, Lysomes in the rat sciatic nerve following crush. J Cell Biol, 1965. 27(3): p. 651-69. 13. Gaudet, A.D., P.G. Popovich, and M.S. Ramer, Wallerian degeneration: gaining perspective on inflammatory events after peripheral nerve injury. J Neuroinflammation, 2011. 8: p. 110. 14. Fontana, X., et al., c-Jun in Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration and motoneuron survival via paracrine signaling. J Cell Biol, 2012. 198(1): p. 127-41. 15. Seddon, H.J., Three types of nerve injury. Brain, 1943. 66(4): p. 237-288. 16. Sunderland, S., A classification of peripheral nerve injuries producing loss of function. Brain, 1951. 74(4): p. 491-516. 17. Mackinnon, S.E. and A.L. Dellon, Surgery of the peripheral nerve. 1988, New York: Thieme-Stratton Corp. 18. Gordon, T., N. Tyreman, and M.A. Raji, The basis for diminished functional recovery after delayed peripheral nerve repair. J Neurosci, 2011. 31(14): p. 5325-34. 19. Millesi, H., Bridging defects: autologous nerve grafts. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 2007. 100: p. 37-8. 20. Grinsell, D. and C.P. Keating, Peripheral nerve reconstruction after injury: a review of clinical and experimental therapies. Biomed Res Int, 2014. 2014: p. 698256. 21. Daly, W., et al., A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery. J R Soc Interface, 2012. 9(67): p. 202-21. 22. di Summa, P.G., et al., Adipose-derived stem cells enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 2010. 63(9): p. 1544-52. 23. Murphy, M.B., K. Moncivais, and A.I. Caplan, Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Exp Mol Med, 2013. 45: p. e54. 24. Friedenstein, A.J., R.K. Chailakhjan, and K.S. Lalykina, The development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cultures of guinea-pig bone marrow and spleen cells. Cell and Tissue Kinetics, 1970. 3(4): p. 393-403. 25. Dominici, M., et al., Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy, 2006. 8(4): p. 315-7. 26. Lakshmipathy, U. and C. Verfaillie, Stem cell plasticity. Blood Reviews, 2005. 19(1): p. 29-38. 27. Kopen, G.C., D.J. Prockop, and D.G. Phinney, Marrow stromal cells migrate throughout forebrain and cerebellum, and they differentiate into astrocytes after injection into neonatal mouse brains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1999. 96(19): p. 10711-6. 28. Woodbury, D., et al., Adult rat and human bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2000. 61(4): p. 364-70. 29. Kamada, T., et al., Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery after complete transection of adult rat spinal cord. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 2005. 64(1): p. 37-45. 30. Zhao, C.P., et al., Human mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorate the phenotype of SOD1-G93A ALS mice. Cytotherapy, 2007. 9(5): p. 414-26. 31. Tondreau, T., et al., Gene expression pattern of functional neuronal cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. BMC Genomics, 2008. 9: p. 166. 32. Deng, J., et al., Mesenchymal stem cells spontaneously express neural proteins in culture and are neurogenic after transplantation. Stem Cells, 2006. 24(4): p. 1054-64. 33. Zuk, P.A., et al., Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2002. 13(12): p. 4279-95. 34. Erices, A., P. Conget, and J.J. Minguell, Mesenchymal progenitor cells in human umbilical cord blood. British Journal of Haematology, 2000. 109(1): p. 235-42. 35. Estrela, C., et al., Mesenchymal stem cells in the dental tissues: perspectives for tissue regeneration. Brazilian Dental Journal, 2011. 22(2): p. 91-8. 36. Sloan, A.J. and A.J. Smith, Stem cells and the dental pulp: potential roles in dentine regeneration and repair. Oral Dis, 2007. 13(2): p. 151-7. 37. Jontell, M., et al., Immune defense mechanisms of the dental pulp. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1998. 9(2): p. 179-200. 38. Smith, A.J., et al., Reactionary dentinogenesis. International Journal of Developmental Biology, 1995. 39(1): p. 273-80. 39. Smith, A.J. and H. Lesot, Induction and regulation of crown dentinogenesis: embryonic events as a template for dental tissue repair? Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 2001. 12(5): p. 425-37. 40. Gronthos, S., et al., Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2000. 97(25): p. 13625-30. 41. Hilkens, P., et al., Effect of isolation methodology on stem cell properties and multilineage differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 2013. 353(1): p. 65-78. 42. Zhang, W., et al., Multilineage differentiation potential of stem cells derived from human dental pulp after cryopreservation. Tissue Engineering, 2006. 12(10): p. 2813-23. 43. Woods, E.J., et al., Optimized cryopreservation method for human dental pulp-derived stem cells and their tissues of origin for banking and clinical use. Cryobiology, 2009. 59(2): p. 150-7. 44. Lee, S.Y., et al., Effects of cryopreservation of intact teeth on the isolated dental pulp stem cells. Journal of Endodontics, 2010. 36(8): p. 1336-40. 45. Pierdomenico, L., et al., Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with immunosuppressive activity can be easily isolated from dental pulp. Transplantation, 2005. 80(6): p. 836-42. 46. Tomic, S., et al., Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp and dental follicle are susceptible to activation by toll-like receptor agonists. Stem Cells Dev, 2011. 20(4): p. 695-708. 47. Kerkis, I., et al., Early transplantation of human immature dental pulp stem cells from baby teeth to golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs: Local or systemic? J Transl Med, 2008. 6: p. 35. 48. Gronthos, S., et al., Stem cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells. Journal of Dental Research, 2002. 81(8): p. 531-5. 49. Balic, A., et al., Characterization of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp of erupted and unerupted murine molars. Bone, 2010. 46(6): p. 1639-51. 50. d'Aquino, R., et al., Human postnatal dental pulp cells co-differentiate into osteoblasts and endotheliocytes: a pivotal synergy leading to adult bone tissue formation. Cell Death and Differentiation, 2007. 14(6): p. 1162-71. 51. Ishkitiev, N., et al., High-purity hepatic lineage differentiated from dental pulp stem cells in serum-free medium. Journal of Endodontics, 2012. 38(4): p. 475-80. 52. Kiraly, M., et al., Simultaneous PKC and cAMP activation induces differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells into functionally active neurons. Neurochemistry International, 2009. 55(5): p. 323-32. 53. Nakatsuka, R., et al., 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment induces skeletal myogenic differentiation of mouse dental pulp stem cells. Archives of Oral Biology, 2010. 55(5): p. 350-7. 54. Paino, F., et al., Ecto-mesenchymal stem cells from dental pulp are committed to differentiate into active melanocytes. Eur Cell Mater, 2010. 20: p. 295-305. 55. Stevens, A., et al., Human dental pulp stem cells differentiate into neural crest-derived melanocytes and have label-retaining and sphere-forming abilities. Stem Cells Dev, 2008. 17(6): p. 1175-84. 56. Miura, M., et al., SHED: stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003. 100(10): p. 5807-12. 57. Huang, G.T., et al., The hidden treasure in apical papilla: the potential role in pulp/dentin regeneration and bioroot engineering. J Endod, 2008. 34(6): p. 645-51. 58. Seo, B.M., et al., Investigation of multipotent postnatal stem cells from human periodontal ligament. Lancet, 2004. 364(9429): p. 149-55. 59. Arthur, A., et al., Adult human dental pulp stem cells differentiate toward functionally active neurons under appropriate environmental cues. Stem Cells, 2008. 26(7): p. 1787-95. 60. Janebodin, K., et al., Isolation and characterization of neural crest-derived stem cells from dental pulp of neonatal mice. PLoS One, 2011. 6(11): p. e27526. 61. Martens, W., et al., Expression pattern of basal markers in human dental pulp stem cells and tissue. Cells Tissues Organs, 2012. 196(6): p. 490-500. 62. Sakai, K., et al., Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2012. 122(1): p. 80-90. 63. Nosrat, I.V., et al., Dental pulp cells produce neurotrophic factors, interact with trigeminal neurons in vitro, and rescue motoneurons after spinal cord injury. Developmental Biology, 2001. 238(1): p. 120-32. 64. Nosrat, I.V., et al., Dental pulp cells provide neurotrophic support for dopaminergic neurons and differentiate into neurons in vitro; implications for tissue engineering and repair in the nervous system. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2004. 19(9): p. 2388-98. 65. Mead, B., et al., Intravitreally transplanted dental pulp stem cells promote neuroprotection and axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2013. 54(12): p. 7544-56. 66. Mead, B., et al., Paracrine-mediated neuroprotection and neuritogenesis of axotomised retinal ganglion cells by human dental pulp stem cells: comparison with human bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PLoS One, 2014. 9(10): p. e109305. 67. Ellis, K.M., et al., Neurogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells isolated from murine incisors. Stem Cell Res Ther, 2014. 5(1): p. 30. 68. Aanismaa, R., et al., Human dental pulp stem cells differentiate into neural precursors but not into mature functional neurons. Stem Cell Discov., 2012. 2: p. 85–91. 69. Osathanon, T., et al., Neurogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells using different induction protocols. Oral Diseases, 2014. 20(4): p. 352-8. 70. Gervois, P., et al., Neurogenic maturation of human dental pulp stem cells following neurosphere generation induces morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of functional neurons. Stem Cells Dev, 2015. 24(3): p. 296-311. 71. Barnes, D. and G. Sato, Serum-free cell culture: a unifying approach. Cell, 1980. 22(3): p. 649-55. 72. Tekkatte, C., et al., "Humanized" stem cell culture techniques: the animal serum controversy. Stem Cells Int, 2011. 2011: p. 504723. 73. Hirata, T.M., et al., Expression of multiple stem cell markers in dental pulp cells cultured in serum-free media. J Endod, 2010. 36(7): p. 1139-44. 74. Bonnamain, V., et al., Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium. Front Physiol, 2013. 4: p. 357. 75. Zainal Ariffin, S.H., et al., Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells in Serum-Free Medium. Stem Cells International, 2013. 76. Askari, N., et al., Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Differentiate into Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Using the Expression of Olig2 Transcription Factor. Cells Tissues Organs, 2014. 200(2): p. 93-103. 77. Apel, C., et al., The neuroprotective effect of dental pulp cells in models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neural Transmission, 2009. 116(1): p. 71-8. 78. Nesti, C., et al., Human dental pulp stem cells protect mouse dopaminergic neurons against MPP+ or rotenone. Brain Research, 2011. 1367: p. 94-102. 79. Huang, A.H., et al., Putative dental pulp-derived stem/stromal cells promote proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural cells in the hippocampus of mice. Stem Cells, 2008. 26(10): p. 2654-63. 80. Arthur, A., et al., Implanted adult human dental pulp stem cells induce endogenous axon guidance. Stem Cells, 2009. 27(9): p. 2229-37. 81. Kiraly, M., et al., Integration of neuronally predifferentiated human dental pulp stem cells into rat brain in vivo. Neurochem Int, 2011. 59(3): p. 371-81. 82. de Almeida, F.M., et al., Human dental pulp cells: a new source of cell therapy in a mouse model of compressive spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2011. 28(9): p. 1939-49. 83. Leong, W.K., et al., Human adult dental pulp stem cells enhance poststroke functional recovery through non-neural replacement mechanisms. Stem Cells Transl Med, 2012. 1(3): p. 177-87. 84. Yang, K.L., et al., A simple and efficient method for generating Nurr1-positive neuronal stem cells from human wisdom teeth (tNSC) and the potential of tNSC for stroke therapy. Cytotherapy, 2009. 11(5): p. 606-17. 85. Sugiyama, M., et al., Dental pulp-derived CD31(-)/CD146(-) side population stem/progenitor cells enhance recovery of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Tissue Eng Part A, 2011. 17(9-10): p. 1303-11. 86. Sasaki, R., et al., Tubulation with dental pulp cells promotes facial nerve regeneration in rats. Tissue Eng Part A, 2008. 14(7): p. 1141-7. 87. Sasaki, R., et al., PLGA artificial nerve conduits with dental pulp cells promote facial nerve regeneration. J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2011. 5(10): p. 823-30. 88. Yamamoto, T., et al., Trophic Effects of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Schwann Cells in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration. Cell Transplant, 2015. 89. Young, F., A. Sloan, and B. Song, Dental pulp stem cells and their potential roles in central nervous system regeneration and repair. J Neurosci Res, 2013. 91(11): p. 1383-93. 90. Gluck, T., Ueber Neuroplastik auf dem Wege der Transplantation. Arch. Klin. Chir., 1880. 25: p. 606-16. 91. Payr, E., Beiträge zur Technik der Blutgefass und Nervennaht nebst Mitteilungen über die Verwendung eines resorbibaren Metalles in der Chirurgie. Arch. Klin. Chir., 1900. 62: p. 67. 92. Kirk, E.G. and D. Lewis, Fascial tubulization in the repair of nerve defects. JAMA, 1915. 65: p. 486-92. 93. Arslantunali, D., et al., Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update. Med Devices (Auckl), 2014. 7: p. 405-24. 94. Bell, J.H. and J.W. Haycock, Next generation nerve guides: materials, fabrication, growth factors, and cell delivery. Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 2012. 18(2): p. 116-28. 95. Chiono, V. and C. Tonda-Turo, Trends in the design of nerve guidance channels in peripheral nerve tissue engineering. Progress in Neurobiology, 2015. 96. Aurand, E.R., K.J. Lampe, and K.B. Bjugstad, Defining and designing polymers and hydrogels for neural tissue engineering. Neurosci Res, 2011. 97. Geckil, H., et al., Engineering hydrogels as extracellular matrix mimics. Nanomedicine (Lond), 2010. 5(3): p. 469-84. 98. Levental, I., P.C. Georges, and P.A. Janmey, Soft biological materials and their impact on cell function. Soft Matter, 2007. 3(3): p. 299-306. 99. Murphy, W.L., T.C. McDevitt, and A.J. Engler, Materials as stem cell regulators. Nature Materials, 2014. 13(6): p. 547-557. 100. Balgude, A.P., et al., Agarose gel stiffness determines rate of DRG neurite extension in 3D cultures. Biomaterials, 2001. 22(10): p. 1077-84. 101. Gunn, J.W., S.D. Turner, and B.K. Mann, Adhesive and mechanical properties of hydrogels influence neurite extension. J Biomed Mater Res A, 2005. 72(1): p. 91-7. 102. Murugan, R. and S. Ramakrishna, Design strategies of tissue engineering scaffolds with controlled fiber orientation. Tissue Engineering, 2007. 13(8): p. 1845-66. 103. Alberts, B., et al., Molecular Biology of The Cell. 2002, New York: Garland Science. 104. Friess, W., Collagen--biomaterial for drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 1998. 45(2): p. 113-36. 105. Parenteau-Bareil, R., R. Gauvin, and F. Berthod, Collagen-based biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Materials, 2010. 3: p. 1863-1887. 106. Elsdale, T. and J. Bard, Collagen Substrata for Studies on Cell Behavior. Journal of Cell Biology, 1972. 54(3): p. 626-&. 107. Lee, P., et al., Microfluidic alignment of collagen fibers for in vitro cell culture. Biomedical Microdevices, 2006. 8(1): p. 35-41. 108. Cheng, X.G., et al., An electrochemical fabrication process for the assembly of anisotropically oriented collagen bundles. Biomaterials, 2008. 29(22): p. 3278-3288. 109. Torbet, J., J.M. Freyssinet, and G. Hudry-Clergeon, Oriented fibrin gels formed by polymerization in strong magnetic fields. Nature, 1981. 289(5793): p. 91-3. 110. Torbet, J. and M.C. Ronziere, Magnetic Alignment of Collagen during Self-Assembly. Biochemical Journal, 1984. 219(3): p. 1057-1059. 111. Eastwood, M., et al., Effect of precise mechanical loading on fibroblast populated collagen lattices: Morphological changes. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton, 1998. 40(1): p. 13-21. 112. Mudera, V.C., et al., Molecular responses of human dermal fibroblasts to dual cues: Contact guidance and mechanical load. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton, 2000. 45(1): p. 1-9. 113. Hynes, R.O., Integrins: bidirectional, allosteric signaling machines. Cell, 2002. 110(6): p. 673-87. 114. Barczyk, M., S. Carracedo, and D. Gullberg, Integrins. Cell Tissue Res, 2010. 339(1): p. 269-80. 115. Takada, Y., X. Ye, and S. Simon, The integrins. Genome Biol, 2007. 8(5): p. 215. 116. Goldman, R. and D. Spector, Live Cell Imaging: A Laboratory Manual. 2004, Cold Spring Harbor, NY: CSHL Press. 117. Teraski, M. and M.E. Dailey, Confocal microscopy of living cells., in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy. 1995, Plenum Press: New York. 118. Artym, V.V. and K. Matsumoto, Imaging cells in three-dimensional collagen matrix. Curr Protoc Cell Biol, 2010. Chapter 10: p. Unit 10 18 1-20. 119. Isobe, K., W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, Nonlinear optical microscopy, in Functional Imaging by Controlled Nonlinear Optical Phenomena. 2013, John Wiley & Sons. 120. Helmchen, F. and W. Denk, Deep tissue two-photon microscopy. Nat Methods, 2005. 2(12): p. 932-40. 121. Thomas, G., et al., Advances and challenges in label-free nonlinear optical imaging using two-photon excitation fluorescence and second harmonic generation for cancer research. J Photochem Photobiol B, 2014. 141: p. 128-38. 122. Guo, H.W., et al., Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence lifetime separates human mesenchymal stem cells from differentiated progenies. J Biomed Opt, 2008. 13(5): p. 050505. 123. Konig, K., A. Uchugonova, and E. Gorjup, Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of 3D-stem cell spheroids during differentiation. Microsc Res Tech, 2011. 74(1): p. 9-17. 124. Stringari, C., et al., Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiating progenies by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy. J Biomed Opt, 2012. 17(4): p. 046012. 125. Croce, A.C., et al., Diagnostic potential of autofluorescence for an assisted intraoperative delineation of glioblastoma resection margins. Photochem Photobiol, 2003. 77(3): p. 309-18. 126. Xylas, J., et al., Noninvasive assessment of mitochondrial organization in three-dimensional tissues reveals changes associated with cancer development. Int J Cancer, 2015. 136(2): p. 322-32. 127. Zhuo, S., et al., Label-free monitoring of colonic cancer progression using multiphoton microscopy. Biomed Opt Express, 2011. 2(3): p. 615-9. 128. Boulesteix, T., et al., Second-harmonic microscopy of unstained living cardiac myocytes: measurements of sarcomere length with 20-nm accuracy. Opt Lett, 2004. 29(17): p. 2031-3. 129. Freund, I. and M. Deutsch, Second-harmonic microscopy of biological tissue. Opt Lett, 1986. 11(2): p. 94. 130. Chen, X., et al., Second harmonic generation microscopy for quantitative analysis of collagen fibrillar structure. Nat Protoc, 2012. 7(4): p. 654-69. 131. Kniazeva, E., et al., Quantification of local matrix deformations and mechanical properties during capillary morphogenesis in 3D. Integr Biol (Camb), 2012. 4(4): p. 431-9. 132. Raub, C.B., et al., Image correlation spectroscopy of multiphoton images correlates with collagen mechanical properties. Biophys J, 2008. 94(6): p. 2361-2373. 133. Robertson, C. and S.C. George, Theory and practical recommendations for autocorrelation-based image correlation spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt, 2012. 17(8). 134. Eichhorn, S.J. and W.W. Sampson, Statistical geometry of pores and statistics of porous nanofibrous assemblies. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2005. 2(4): p. 309-318. 135. Mir, S.M., B. Baggett, and U. Utzinger, The efficacy of image correlation spectroscopy for characterization of the extracellular matrix. Biomed Opt Express, 2012. 3(2): p. 215-224. 136. Paesen, R., et al., Polarization second harmonic generation by image correlation spectroscopy on collagen type I hydrogels. Acta Biomater, 2014. 10(5): p. 2036-42. 137. Deumens, R., et al., Repairing injured peripheral nerves: Bridging the gap. Prog Neurobiol, 2010. 92(3): p. 245-76. 138. Hall, S.M., The effect of inhibiting Schwann cell mitosis on the re-innervation of acellular autografts in the peripheral nervous system of the mouse. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 1986. 12(4): p. 401-14. 139. Ichihara, S., Y. Inada, and T. Nakamura, Artificial nerve tubes and their application for repair of peripheral nerve injury: an update of current concepts. Injury, 2008. 39 Suppl 4: p. 29-39. 140. Gu, X., et al., Construction of tissue engineered nerve grafts and their application in peripheral nerve regeneration. Progress in Neurobiology, 2011. 93(2): p. 204-30. 141. Nectow, A.R., K.G. Marra, and D.L. Kaplan, Biomaterials for the development of peripheral nerve guidance conduits. Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 2012. 18(1): p. 40-50. 142. Brown, R.A. and J.B. Phillips, Cell responses to biomimetic protein scaffolds used in tissue repair and engineering. International Review of Cytology, 2007. 262: p. 75-150. 143. Georgiou, M., et al., Engineered neural tissue for peripheral nerve repair. Biomaterials, 2013. 34(30): p. 7335-7343. 144. Ren, Z., et al., Role of stem cells in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerves. Rev Neurosci, 2012. 23(2): p. 135-43. 145. Terenghi, G., M. Wiberg, and P.J. Kingham, Chapter 21: Use of stem cells for improving nerve regeneration. Int Rev Neurobiol, 2009. 87: p. 393-403. 146. Javazon, E.H., K.J. Beggs, and A.W. Flake, Mesenchymal stem cells: paradoxes of passaging. Experimental Hematology, 2004. 32(5): p. 414-25. 147. Ross, J.J. and C.M. Verfaillie, Evaluation of neural plasticity in adult stem cells. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 2008. 363(1489): p. 199-205. 148. Chai, Y., et al., Fate of the mammalian cranial neural crest during tooth and mandibular morphogenesis. Development, 2000. 127(8): p. 1671-9. 149. Graham, A., J. Begbie, and I. McGonnell, Significance of the cranial neural crest. Developmental Dynamics, 2004. 229(1): p. 5-13. 150. Miletich, I. and P.T. Sharpe, Neural crest contribution to mammalian tooth formation. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today, 2004. 72(2): p. 200-12. 151. Thesleff, I. and T. Aberg, Molecular regulation of tooth development. Bone, 1999. 25(1): p. 123-5. 152. Papaccio, G., et al., Long-term cryopreservation of dental pulp stem cells (SBP-DPSCs) and their differentiated osteoblasts: a cell source for tissue repair. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2006. 208(2): p. 319-25. 153. Martens, W., et al., Dental stem cells and their promising role in neural regeneration: an update. Clinical Oral Investigations, 2013. 17(9): p. 1969-83. 154. Struys, T., et al., Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of multilineage differentiated human dental pulp- and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cells Tissues Organs, 2011. 193(6): p. 366-78. 155. Dezawa, M., et al., Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats induced by transplantation of in vitro differentiated bone-marrow stromal cells. Eur J Neurosci, 2001. 14(11): p. 1771-6. 156. Wei, Y., et al., An improved method for isolating Schwann cells from postnatal rat sciatic nerves. Cell and Tissue Research, 2009. 337(3): p. 361-9. 157. Bretschneider, A., W. Burns, and A. Morrison, "Pop-off" technic. The ultrastructure of paraffin-embedded sections. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1981. 76(4): p. 450-3. 158. Phillips, J.B. and R.A. Brown, Self-aligning tissue growth guide. International Patent WO2004087231, 2004. 159. Brown, R.A., et al., Ultrarapid engineering of biomimetic materials and tissues: Fabrication of nano- and microstructures by plastic compression. Advanced Functional Materials, 2005. 15(11): p. 1762-1770. 160. Phillips, J.B. and R. Brown, Micro-structured materials and mechanical cues in 3D collagen gels. Methods Mol Biol, 2011. 695: p. 183-96. 161. East, E., J.P. Golding, and J.B. Phillips, A versatile 3D culture model facilitates monitoring of astrocytes undergoing reactive gliosis. J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2009. 3(8): p. 634-46. 162. Wright, K.E., et al., Peripheral neural cell sensitivity to mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy in a 3D in vitro model. British Journal of Cancer, 2009. 101(4): p. 658-65. 163. Kingham, P.J., et al., Adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into a Schwann cell phenotype and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Experimental Neurology, 2007. 207(2): p. 267-74. 164. Mantovani, C., G. Terenghi, and S.G. Shawcross, Isolation of adult stem cells and their differentiation to Schwann cells. Methods in Molecular Biology, 2012. 916: p. 47-57. 165. Ibarretxe, G., et al., Neural crest stem cells from dental tissues: a new hope for dental and neural regeneration. Stem Cells Int, 2012. 2012: p. 103503. 166. Deng, W., et al., In vitro differentiation of human marrow stromal cells into early progenitors of neural cells by conditions that increase intracellular cyclic AMP. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2001. 282(1): p. 148-52. 167. Fraichard, A., et al., In vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells into glial cells and functional neurons. Journal of Cell Science, 1995. 108 ( Pt 10): p. 3181-8. 168. Gage, F.H., et al., Survival and differentiation of adult neuronal progenitor cells transplanted to the adult brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1995. 92(25): p. 11879-83. 169. Frostick, S.P., Q. Yin, and G.J. Kemp, Schwann cells, neurotrophic factors, and peripheral nerve regeneration. Microsurgery, 1998. 18(7): p. 397-405. 170. Ribeiro-Resende, V.T., et al., Strategies for inducing the formation of bands of Bungner in peripheral nerve regeneration. Biomaterials, 2009. 30(29): p. 5251-9. 171. East, E., et al., Alignment of astrocytes increases neuronal growth in three-dimensional collagen gels and is maintained following plastic compression to form a spinal cord repair conduit. Tissue Eng Part A, 2010. 16(10): p. 3173-84. 172. Phillips, J.B., et al., Neural tissue engineering: a self-organizing collagen guidance conduit. Tissue Engineering, 2005. 11(9-10): p. 1611-7. 173. Sherman, D.L. and P.J. Brophy, Mechanisms of axon ensheathment and myelin growth. Nat Rev Neurosci, 2005. 6(9): p. 683-90. 174. Nichols, C.M., et al., Effects of motor versus sensory nerve grafts on peripheral nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol, 2004. 190(2): p. 347-55. 175. Siemionow, M. and G. Brzezicki, Chapter 8: Current techniques and concepts in peripheral nerve repair. Int Rev Neurobiol, 2009. 87: p. 141-72. 176. Angius, D., et al., A systematic review of animal models used to study nerve regeneration in tissue-engineered scaffolds. Biomaterials, 2012. 33(32): p. 8034-9. 177. O'Rourke, C., et al., Optimising contraction and alignment of cellular collagen hydrogels to achieve reliable and consistent engineered anisotropic tissue. J Biomater Appl, 2015. 178. Martens, W., et al., Human dental pulp stem cells can differentiate into Schwann cells and promote and guide neurite outgrowth in an aligned tissue-engineered collagen construct in vitro. FASEB J, 2014. 28(4): p. 1634-43. 179. Hoeben, A., et al., Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. Pharmacol Rev, 2004. 56(4): p. 549-80. 180. Rosenstein, J.M., J.M. Krum, and C. Ruhrberg, VEGF in the nervous system. Organogenesis, 2010. 6(2): p. 107-14. 181. Aranha, A.M., et al., Hypoxia enhances the angiogenic potential of human dental pulp cells. J Endod, 2010. 36(10): p. 1633-7. 182. Tran-Hung, L., et al., Quantification of angiogenic growth factors released by human dental cells after injury. Arch Oral Biol, 2008. 53(1): p. 9-13. 183. Tran-Hung, L., S. Mathieu, and I. About, Role of human pulp fibroblasts in angiogenesis. J Dent Res, 2006. 85(9): p. 819-23. 184. Karaoz, E., et al., Human dental pulp stem cells demonstrate better neural and epithelial stem cell properties than bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Histochem Cell Biol, 2011. 136(4): p. 455-73. 185. Hilkens, P., et al., Pro-angiogenic impact of dental stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Stem Cell Res, 2014. 12(3): p. 778-90. 186. Hata, M., et al., Transplantation of cultured dental pulp stem cells into the skeletal muscles ameliorated diabetic polyneuropathy: therapeutic plausibility of freshly isolated and cryopreserved dental pulp stem cells. Stem Cell Res Ther, 2015. 6: p. 162. 187. Rice, J.J., et al., Engineering the regenerative microenvironment with biomaterials. Adv Healthc Mater, 2013. 2(1): p. 57-71. 188. Hamid, R., et al., Comparison of alamar blue and MTT assays for high through-put screening. Toxicol In Vitro, 2004. 18(5): p. 703-10. 189. Patel, H.D., et al., Comparison of the MTT and Alamar Blue assay for in vitro anti-cancer activity by testing of various chalcone and thiosemicarbazone derivatives. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2013. 4(2): p. 707-716. 190. Gruber, R., et al., Bone marrow stromal cells can provide a local environment that favors migration and formation of tubular structures of endothelial cells. Tissue Eng, 2005. 11(5-6): p. 896-903. 191. Iohara, K., et al., A novel stem cell source for vasculogenesis in ischemia: subfraction of side population cells from dental pulp. Stem Cells, 2008. 26(9): p. 2408-18. 192. Potapova, I.A., et al., Mesenchymal stem cells support migration, extracellular matrix invasion, proliferation, and survival of endothelial cells in vitro. Stem Cells, 2007. 25(7): p. 1761-8. 193. Duffy, G.P., et al., Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote angiogenic processes in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Tissue Eng Part A, 2009. 15(9): p. 2459-70. 194. Rampersad, S.N., Multiple applications of Alamar Blue as an indicator of metabolic function and cellular health in cell viability bioassays. Sensors (Basel), 2012. 12(9): p. 12347-60. 195. Yadav, K., et al., Cell proliferation assays. eLS, 2014. 196. Georgiou, M., et al., Engineered neural tissue with aligned, differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration across a critical sized defect in rat sciatic nerve. Biomaterials, 2015. 37: p. 242-51. 197. Benowitz, L.I. and P.G. Popovich, Inflammation and axon regeneration. Curr Opin Neurol, 2011. 24(6): p. 577-83. 198. Namavari, A., et al., Cyclosporine immunomodulation retards regeneration of surgically transected corneal nerves. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2012. 53(2): p. 732-40. 199. D’Arpa, S., et al., Vascularized nerve “grafts”: just a graft or a worthwhile procedure? Plast Aesthet Res, 2015. 2(4): p. 183-194. 200. Lind, R. and M.B. Wood, Comparison of the pattern of early revascularization of conventional versus vascularized nerve grafts in the canine. J Reconstr Microsurg, 1986. 2(4): p. 229-34. 201. Penkert, G., W. Bini, and M. Samii, Revascularization of nerve grafts: an experimental study. J Reconstr Microsurg, 1988. 4(4): p. 319-25. 202. Kingham, P.J., et al., Stimulating the neurotrophic and angiogenic properties of human adipose-derived stem cells enhances nerve repair. Stem Cells Dev, 2014. 23(7): p. 741-54. 203. Krock, B.L., N. Skuli, and M.C. Simon, Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis: good and evil. Genes Cancer, 2011. 2(12): p. 1117-33. 204. Best, T.J., et al., Revascularization of peripheral nerve autografts and allografts. Plast Reconstr Surg, 1999. 104(1): p. 152-60. 205. Chalfoun, C., et al., Primary nerve grafting: A study of revascularization. Microsurgery, 2003. 23(1): p. 60-5. 206. Langer, R. and J.P. Vacanti, Tissue Engineering. Science, 1993. 260(5110): p. 920-926. 207. Fratzl, P. and R. Weinkamer, Nature's hierarchical materials. Progress in Materials Science, 2007. 52(8): p. 1263-1334. 208. Van Der Rest, M., R. Garrone, and D. Herbage, Collagen A family of proteins with many facets, in Advances In Molecular And Cell Biology; Extracellular Matrix, E. Bittar and H. Kleinman, Editors. 1993, Elsevier. p. 1-67. 209. Freund, I., M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, Connective-Tissue Polarity - Optical 2nd-Harmonic Microscopy, Crossed-Beam Summation, and Small-Angle Scattering in Rat-Tail Tendon. Biophys J, 1986. 50(4): p. 693-712. 210. RichardsKortum, R. and E. SevickMuraca, Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, 1996. 47: p. 555-606. 211. Brown, E., et al., Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation. Nature Medicine, 2003. 9(6): p. 796-800. 212. Campagnola, P., Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy: applications to diseases diagnostics. Analytical Chemistry, 2011. 83(9): p. 3224-31. 213. Matcher, S.J., Applications of SHG microscopy in tissue engineering, in Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine. 2013, CRC Press. p. 82-88. 214. Vielreicher, M., et al., Taking a deep look: modern microscopy technologies to optimize the design and functionality of biocompatible scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2013. 10(86). 215. Grinnell, F. and W.M. Petroll, Cell motility and mechanics in three-dimensional collagen matrices. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 2010. 26: p. 335-61. 216. Brown, R.A., In the beginning there were soft collagen-cell gels: towards better 3D connective tissue models? Experimental Cell Research, 2013. 319(16): p. 2460-2469. 217. Ahearne, M., Introduction to cell-hydrogel mechanosensing. Interface Focus, 2014. 4(2). 218. Fernandez, P. and A.R. Bausch, The compaction of gels by cells: a case of collective mechanical activity. Integr Biol (Camb), 2009. 1(3): p. 252-9. 219. Matteini, P., et al., Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging. Opt Express, 2009. 17(6): p. 4868-78. 220. Rao, R.A., M.R. Mehta, and K.C. Toussaint, Jr., Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation imaging of biological tissues. Opt Express, 2009. 17(17): p. 14534-42. 221. Ghazaryan, A., et al., Analysis of collagen fiber domain organization by Fourier second harmonic generation microscopy. J Biomed Opt, 2013. 18(3): p. 31105. 222. Gjorevski, N. and C.M. Nelson, Mapping of mechanical strains and stresses around quiescent engineered three-dimensional epithelial tissues. Biophys J, 2012. 103(1): p. 152-62. 223. Winer, J.P., S. Oake, and P.A. Janmey, Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation. PLoS One, 2009. 4(7): p. e6382. 224. White, D.J., et al., The collagen receptor subfamily of the integrins. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2004. 36(8): p. 1405-10. 225. Docheva, D., et al., Human mesenchymal stem cells in contact with their environment: surface characteristics and the integrin system. J Cell Mol Med, 2007. 11(1): p. 21-38. 226. Milner, R., et al., Division of labor of Schwann cell integrins during migration on peripheral nerve extracellular matrix ligands. Dev Biol, 1997. 185(2): p. 215-28. 227. Vader, D., et al., Strain-induced alignment in collagen gels. PLoS One, 2009. 4(6): p. e5902. 228. Varas, L., et al., Alpha10 integrin expression is up-regulated on fibroblast growth factor-2-treated mesenchymal stem cells with improved chondrogenic differentiation potential. Stem Cells Dev, 2007. 16(6): p. 965-78. 229. Chastain, S.R., et al., Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells to polymer scaffolds occurs via distinct ECM ligands and controls their osteogenic differentiation. J Biomed Mater Res A, 2006. 78(1): p. 73-85. 230. Foster, L.J., et al., Differential expression profiling of membrane proteins by quantitative proteomics in a human mesenchymal stem cell line undergoing osteoblast differentiation. Stem Cells, 2005. 23(9): p. 1367-77. 231. Majumdar, M.K., et al., Characterization and functionality of cell surface molecules on human mesenchymal stem cells. J Biomed Sci, 2003. 10(2): p. 228-41. 232. Heckmann, L., et al., Mesenchymal progenitor cells communicate via alpha and beta integrins with a three-dimensional collagen type I matrix. Cells Tissues Organs, 2006. 182(3-4): p. 143-54. 233. Popov, C., et al., Integrins alpha2beta1 and alpha11beta1 regulate the survival of mesenchymal stem cells on collagen I. Cell Death Dis, 2011. 2: p. e186. 234. Gronthos, S., et al., Integrin-mediated interactions between human bone marrow stromal precursor cells and the extracellular matrix. Bone, 2001. 28(2): p. 174-81. 235. Rider, D.A., et al., Selection using the alpha-1 integrin (CD49a) enhances the multipotentiality of the mesenchymal stem cell population from heterogeneous bone marrow stromal cells. J Mol Histol, 2007. 38(5): p. 449-58. 236. Popova, S.N., et al., Alpha11 beta1 integrin-dependent regulation of periodontal ligament function in the erupting mouse incisor. Mol Cell Biol, 2007. 27(12): p. 4306-16. 237. Mimura, T., et al., Peripheral nerve regeneration by transplantation of bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells in adult rats. J Neurosurg, 2004. 101(5): p. 806-12. 238. Brohlin, M., et al., Characterisation of human mesenchymal stem cells following differentiation into Schwann cell-like cells. Neurosci Res, 2009. 64(1): p. 41-9. 239. Mahay, D., G. Terenghi, and S.G. Shawcross, Schwann cell mediated trophic effects by differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Exp Cell Res, 2008. 314(14): p. 2692-701. 240. Wang, X., et al., Schwann-like mesenchymal stem cells within vein graft facilitate facial nerve regeneration and remyelination. Brain Res, 2011. 1383: p. 71-80. 241. Shimizu, S., et al., Peripheral nerve regeneration by the in vitro differentiated-human bone marrow stromal cells with Schwann cell property. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2007. 359(4): p. 915-20. 242. Wakao, S., et al., Long-term observation of auto-cell transplantation in non-human primate reveals safety and efficiency of bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells in peripheral nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol, 2010. 223(2): p. 537-47. 243. Radtke, C., et al., Peripheral glial cell differentiation from neurospheres derived from adipose mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Dev Neurosci, 2009. 27(8): p. 817-23. 244. Razavi, S., et al., Efficient transdifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann-like cells: A promise for treatment of demyelinating diseases. Adv Biomed Res, 2012. 1: p. 12. 245. Matsuse, D., et al., Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into functional Schwann cells that sustain peripheral nerve regeneration. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 2010. 69(9): p. 973-85. 246. Peng, J., et al., Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into a Schwann-cell phenotype and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Brain Res Bull, 2011. 84(3): p. 235-43. 247. Xu, Q., et al., In vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance tracking of Sinerem-labeled human umbilical mesenchymal stromal cell-derived Schwann cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2011. 31(3): p. 365-75. 248. Wakao, S., D. Matsuse, and M. Dezawa, Mesenchymal stem cells as a source of Schwann cells: their anticipated use in peripheral nerve regeneration. Cells Tissues Organs, 2014. 200(1): p. 31-41. 249. Brushart, T.M., et al., Schwann cell phenotype is regulated by axon modality and central-peripheral location, and persists in vitro. Exp Neurol, 2013. 247: p. 272-81. 250. Gupta, R., et al., Schwann cells upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor secondary to chronic nerve compression injury. Muscle Nerve, 2005. 31(4): p. 452-60. 251. Guaiquil, V.H., et al., VEGF-B selectively regenerates injured peripheral neurons and restores sensory and trophic functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2014. 111(48): p. 17272-7. 252. Pan, Z., et al., Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes anatomical and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves in the avascular cornea. FASEB J, 2013. 27(7): p. 2756-67. 253. Sondell, M., G. Lundborg, and M. Kanje, Vascular endothelial growth factor has neurotrophic activity and stimulates axonal outgrowth, enhancing cell survival and Schwann cell proliferation in the peripheral nervous system. J Neurosci, 1999. 19(14): p. 5731-40. 254. Berti, C., et al., Role of integrins in peripheral nerves and hereditary neuropathies. Neuromolecular Med, 2006. 8(1-2): p. 191-204. 255. Previtali, S.C., et al., Expression of laminin receptors in schwann cell differentiation: evidence for distinct roles. J Neurosci, 2003. 23(13): p. 5520-30. 256. Fernandez-Valle, C., et al., Actin plays a role in both changes in cell shape and gene-expression associated with Schwann cell myelination. J Neurosci, 1997. 17(1): p. 241-50. 257. Stewart, H.J., et al., Expression and regulation of alpha1beta1 integrin in Schwann cells. J Neurobiol, 1997. 33(7): p. 914-28. 258. Toyota, B., S. Carbonetto, and S. David, A dual laminin/collagen receptor acts in peripheral nerve regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1990. 87(4): p. 1319-22. 259. Johnson, P.J., et al., Tissue engineered constructs for peripheral nerve surgery. Eur Surg, 2013. 45(3). 260. Marquardt, L.M. and S.E. Sakiyama-Elbert, Engineering peripheral nerve repair. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2013. 24(5): p. 887-92. 261. Fu, K.Y., et al., Sciatic nerve regeneration by microporous nerve conduits seeded with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfected neural stem cells. Artif Organs, 2011. 35(4): p. 363-72. 262. Murakami, T., et al., Transplanted neuronal progenitor cells in a peripheral nerve gap promote nerve repair. Brain Research, 2003. 974(1-2): p. 17-24. 263. Nijhuis, T.H., et al., Natural conduits for bridging a 15-mm nerve defect: comparison of the vein supported by muscle and bone marrow stromal cells with a nerve autograft. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 2013. 66(2): p. 251-9. 264. Zhao, Z., et al., Improvement in nerve regeneration through a decellularized nerve graft by supplementation with bone marrow stromal cells in fibrin. Cell Transplant, 2014. 23(1): p. 97-110. 265. Leong, N.L., et al., Athymic rat model for evaluation of engineered anterior cruciate ligament grafts. J Vis Exp, 2015. 26(97). 266. Rolstad, B., The athymic nude rat: an animal experimental model to reveal novel aspects of innate immune responses? Immunological Reviews, 2001. 184: p. 136-144. 267. Raub, C.B., et al., Predicting bulk mechanical properties of cellularized collagen gels using multiphoton microscopy. Acta Biomater, 2010. 6(12): p. 4657-65. 268. Provenzano, P.P., et al., Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Cellular Processes in Breast Cancer. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 2008. 14(6): p. 532-548. 269. Thrasivoulou, C., et al., Optical delineation of human malignant melanoma using second harmonic imaging of collagen. Biomed Opt Express, 2011. 2(5): p. 1282-95. 270. Wolf, K. and P. Friedl, Extracellular matrix determinants of proteolytic and non-proteolytic cell migration. Trends in Cell Biology, 2011. 21(12): p. 736-744. 271. Gailit, J., et al., Platelet-derived growth factor and inflammatory cytokines have differential effects on the expression of integrins alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 by human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 1996. 169(2): p. 281-289. 272. Du, J., et al., Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011. 108(23): p. 9466-9471. 273. Millard, M., S. Odde, and N. Neamati, Integrin Targeted Therapeutics. Theranostics, 2011. 1: p. 154-188.-
local.type.specifiedPhd thesis-
item.accessRightsOpen Access-
item.fullcitationSANEN, Kathleen (2016) Glial differentiated human dental pulp stem cells in engineered neural tissue constructs: an in vitro and in vivo approach.-
item.fulltextWith Fulltext-
Appears in Collections:PhD theses
Research publications
Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
PhD Dissertation Kathleen Sanen (definitief_3).pdfPhD Dissertation3.73 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Show simple item record

Page view(s)

checked on Jun 27, 2022


checked on Jun 27, 2022

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.