Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/20502
Title: Sex Differences in Patients with Chronic Pain Following Whiplash Injury: The Role of Depression, Fear, Somatization, Social Support, and Personality Traits
Authors: Malfliet, Anneleen
De Kooning, Margot
Inghelbrecht, Els
Hachimi-Idrissi, Said
WILLEMS, Bert 
Bernheim, Jan
Nijs, Jo
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Source: PAIN PRACTICE, 15 (8), p. 757-764
Abstract: Background: Chronic whiplash-associated disorders (chronic WAD) cover a large variety of clinical manifestations that can occur after a whiplash injury. Women have an increased risk of developing chronic WAD, and it is suggested that psychosocial factors are related to long-term pain and functioning following whiplash injury and persistence of chronic pain. This leads to the question whether there are sex differences in psychosocial factors in chronic WAD. Methods: This study included 117 subjects who had experienced a whiplash injury at least 3 months before the start of the study (mean duration of pain: 67.29 63.86 months, range: 297 months). They were selected as chronically symptomatic, by excluding those who had recovered from their whiplash injury. Psychosocial aspects (including depression, fear, somatization, social support, and personality traits) were assessed by validated questionnaires, and sex differences were tested using a univariate analysis of variance (ANCOVA), with age and time from whiplash injury as covariates. Results: No differences in depression, fear, somatization, discrepancy in social support personality trait, Neck Disability Index scores, physical functioning, bodily pain, or general health were present between women and men with chronic WAD. Women with chronic WAD reported higher levels of emotional support in problem situations and social companionship. Conclusion: Except for emotional support in problem situations and social companionship, psychosocial factors do not differ between men and women with chronic WAD. These findings imply little to no risk for sex bias in studies investigating psychosocial issues in patients with chronic WAD.
Notes: [Malfliet, Anneleen; De Kooning, Margot; Nijs, Jo] Pain Motion Res Grp, Brussels, Belgium. [Malfliet, Anneleen; De Kooning, Margot; Nijs, Jo] Vrije Univ Brussel, Fac Phys Educ & Physiotherapy, Dept Human Physiol & Physiotherapy, BE-1090 Brussels, Belgium. [Malfliet, Anneleen; De Kooning, Margot; Nijs, Jo] Univ Hosp Brussels, Dept Phys Med & Physiotherapy, Brussels, Belgium. [Inghelbrecht, Els] Vrije Univ Brussel, Fac Med & Pharm, Dept Human Ecol, BE-1090 Brussels, Belgium. [Inghelbrecht, Els] Vrije Univ Brussel, Fac Med & Pharm, Med Sociol, BE-1090 Brussels, Belgium. [Hachimi-Idrissi, Said] Vrije Univ Brussel, Dept Crit Care Med, BE-1090 Brussels, Belgium. [Hachimi-Idrissi, Said] Vrije Univ Brussel, Dept Cerebral Resuscitat Res Grp, BE-1090 Brussels, Belgium. [Willems, Bert] Univ Hasselt, Fac Arts & Architecture, Hasselt, Belgium. [Willems, Bert] PXL Hogesch, Media Arts & Design, Hasselt, Belgium. [Bernheim, Jan] Vrije Univ Brussel, End Of Life Care Res Grp, BE-1090 Brussels, Belgium. [Bernheim, Jan] Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
Keywords: whiplash-associated disorders; sex differences; psychosocial factors; chronic neck pain; biopsychosocial factors; social support;whiplash-associated disorders; sex differences; psychosocial factors; chronic neck pain; biopsychosocial factors; social support
Document URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1942/20502
ISSN: 1530-7085
e-ISSN: 1533-2500
DOI: 10.1111/papr.12244
ISI #: 000364712600011
Rights: © 2014 World Institute of Pain
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 2016
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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