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Title: Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function
Authors: Takele, Y.
Adem, E.
Getahun, M.
Tajebe, F.
Kiflie, A.
Hailu, A.
Raynes, J.
Mengesha, B.
Ayele, T. A.
Lemma, M.
Diro, E.
Toulza, F.
Modolell, M.
Munder, M.
Mueller, I.
Kropf, P.
Issue Date: 2016
Source: PLOS ONE, 11(8), (ART N° e0157919)
Abstract: Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4-16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI < 16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (>= 18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-gamma, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3 zeta, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to increased susceptibility and severity to infectious diseases.
Notes: [Takele, Y.; Mueller, I.; Kropf, P.] Imperial Coll London, Dept Med, London, England. [Takele, Y.; Mengesha, B.] Gondar Univ, Leishmaniasis Res & Treatment Ctr, Gondar, Ethiopia. [Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Lemma, M.] Univ Gondar, Dept Immunol, Gondar, Ethiopia. [Hailu, A.] Univ Addis Ababa, Dept Microbiol Immunol & Parasitol, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [Raynes, J.; Toulza, F.] London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Immunol & Infect, London, England. [Ayele, T. A.] Univ Gondar, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Gondar, Ethiopia. [Shkedy, Z.] Univ Hasselt, Dept Math & Stat, Hasselt, Belgium. [Diro, E.] Univ Gondar, Dept Internal Med, Gondar, Ethiopia. [Modolell, M.] Max Planck Inst Immunobiol & Epigenet, Dept Cellular Immunol, Freiburg, Germany. [Munder, M.] Univ Med Ctr Mainz, Dept Med Hematol Oncol & Pneumol 3, Mainz, Germany.
Keywords: Protein-energy malnutrition; visceral leishmaniasis; arginase activity; immune-system; developing-countries; nutritional-status; anorexia-nervosa; children; morbidity
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ISSN: 1932-6203
e-ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157919
ISI #: 000381768400003
Rights: © 2016 Takele et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 2017
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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