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Title: Association Between Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Anthropometric Parameters, Blood Pressure, and Retinal Microvasculature in Children Age 4 to 6 Years
Authors: COX, Bianca 
DOCKX, Yinthe 
DE BOEVER, Patrick 
NEVEN, Kristof 
Sassi, Franco
SLEURS, Hanne 
Vineis, Paolo
PLUSQUIN, Michelle 
Issue Date: 2020
Source: JAMA NETWORK OPEN, 3 (5)
Abstract: Importance Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) has previously been associated with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors, such as fat mass, glucose and insulin levels, and blood pressure, but these associations appear to be largely mediated by offspring BMI. To our knowledge, no studies have assessed alterations in the retinal microvasculature in association with maternal prepregnancy BMI. Objective To investigate the association between maternal prepregnancy BMI and anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and retinal vessel parameters in children age 4 to 6 years. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants included mother-child pairs of the population-based Environmental Influence on Early Aging (ENVIRONAGE) birth cohort study (Flanders, Belgium) who were recruited at birth from February 2010 to June 2014 and followed-up at age 4 to 6 years between October 2014 and July 2018. Data were analyzed from February 2019 to April 2019. Exposures Maternal prepregnancy BMI based on height and weight measurements at the first antenatal visit (weeks 7-9 of gestation). Main Outcomes and Measures Children's anthropometric, blood pressure, and retinal microcirculation measurements at age 4 to 6 years. Retinal vessel diameters and the tortuosity index, a measure for the curvature of the retinal vasculature, were obtained by fundus image analysis. Results This study included 240 mothers and children with a mean (SD) age of 29. 9 (4.2) years and 54.8 (4.7) months, respectively. Of these, 114 children (47.5%) were boys. Maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with the child's birth weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and retinal vessel tortuosity. A 1-point increase in maternal prepregnancy BMI was associated with a 0.26-mm Hg (95% CI, 0.08-0.44) higher mean arterial pressure for their children, with similar estimates for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Independent from the association with blood pressure, a 1-point increase in maternal prepregnancy BMI was associated with a 0.40 (95% CI, 0.01-0.80) higher retinal tortuosity index (x 10(3)). The hypothesis that these associations reflect direct intrauterine mechanisms is supported by the following observations: associations were independent of the current child's BMI and the estimates for paternal BMI at the follow-up visit did not reach significance. Conclusions and Relevance Considering that blood pressure tracks from childhood into adulthood and microvascular changes may be early markers of cardiometabolic disease development, our results suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI is an important modifiable risk factor for later-life cardiovascular health of the offspring.
Notes: Nawrot, TS (corresponding author), Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Agoralaan,Bldg D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
Other: Nawrot, TS (corresponding author), Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Agoralaan,Bldg D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
Keywords: Cardiovascular-Disease;Vascular Caliber;Risk-Factors;Obesity;Childhood;Pregnancy;Health;Consequences;Hypertension;Events
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ISSN: 2574-3805
e-ISSN: 2574-3805
DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4662
ISI #: WOS:000536212700001
Rights: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2020 Cox B et al. JAMA Network Open.
Category: A1
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 2021
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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