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Title: The influence of addition elements on the early resistance changes observed during electromigration testing of Al metal lines
Authors: DE CEUNINCK, Ward 
D'Haeger, V
Witvrouw, A
Maex, K
De Pauw, P
Pergoot, A
Issue Date: 1998
Abstract: This paper provides a critical review on early resistance changes observed during electromigration testing of Al, AlSi and AlSiCu metal lines. At present, high resolution in situ electrical resistance measurements are widely accepted as a valuable tool for the study of electromigration. It will be shown however that the results of these measurements should be interpreted with care. It will indeed be shown that, particularly for Si and/or Cu alloyed metallizations, an early resistance change measurement (during electromigration) can contain information that has no link with the damage induced by the electromigration process. A number of disturbing factors will be identified, which are all induced by temperature driven processes. The first type of disturbance is well known: the immediate change of the measured resistance with temperature steps and fluctuations (thermometer effect). The second type of disturbance is not so widely recognised. It is induced by time dependent changes that are observed over an extended period of time, following a preceding temperature step. Two types of disturbing contributions to resistance changes of this second type are identified, which will be denoted as irreversible changes and reversible changes. The irreversible resistance changes are usually observed during the first annealing of the metal line. The reversible changes are typically detected at the start of an electromigration measurement, when the current stress is switched on. It is shown that both the reversible and irreversible changes are caused by precipitation/dissolution reactions of addition elements. It is also shown that the often observed parabolic initial resistance increase that is detected at the start of electromigration experiments should be attributed to the time dependent, reversible dissolution of the addition element(s). Comparable experiments, executed however at a much reduced current level so that no Joule heating takes place, and hence no reversible processes are initiated, show that the kinetics of the purely electron-wind induced resistance changes are completely different: instead of a parabolic initial increase, an incubation time can be observed during the first stage of the measurement. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Notes: Limburgs Univ Ctr, Div Mat Phys, Inst Mat Res, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. DESTIN NV, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. IMEC, B-3001 Louvain, Belgium. Alcatel Mietec, B-9700 Oudenaarde, Belgium.De Ceuninck, WA, Limburgs Univ Ctr, Div Mat Phys, Inst Mat Res, Wetenschaps Pk, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
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DOI: 10.1016/S0026-2714(97)00064-4
ISI #: 000072771600009
Type: Journal Contribution
Validations: ecoom 1999
Appears in Collections:Research publications

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